Maximal heart rate is lower in athletes than in non-athletes

Researchers use the term “exercise-induced” when they investigate the effect of physical activities.

The best method to find the optimal intensity of a particular exercise is an individualization of that particular program. The general recommendation of intensity of different exercises depends on their purpose. We can make a comparison to the general recommendations for jumping rope and weight lifting. The general recommendation of jumping rope is to do 1.5 m/s with 80 % of the maximum heart rate (MHR) for 20 minutes. The general recommendation of weight lifting is to use 20-50 % of MHR.

person bench pressing

CONCLUSION The results obtained demonstrate that we can improve the ability to produce ATP by training with a high intensity. In case of high intensity the rate of anaerobic ATP hydrolysis is much higher than the ATP syntheses. This means that the rate of ATP production is higher, and thereby the rate of the recovery of the ATP level is lower. At the same time when we decrease the intensity of the exercise, the rate of ATP hydrolysis increases. But as we have seen the rate of ATP hydrolysis depends mostly on the concentration of inorganic phosphate, the more the inorganic phosphate is available in a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis, and vice versa. We can state that the higher intensity of the exercise the higher need for the availability inorganic phosphate in order to produce ATP.


However the other source of inorganic phosphate in which we can use that source is the phosphocreatine pool. This source is available in a higher rate and the amount depends on the intensity, the speed, and the volume of blood flow in a skeletal muscle. For instance the maximum rates of the blood flow were found at the maximum of endurance. The blood flow rate in a skeletal muscle increases 2-3 times with training, and therefore a higher concentration of phosphocreatine can be obtained if we increase the intensity of specific exercises like jumping rope.

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For strength exercises where we want to gain maximal strength (1RM) we increase the intensity by using heavy weights and short sets in a repetitions. In general there is an inverse relation between the intensity and the number of repetitions. This fact makes more likely that we decrease the intensity while we use more repetitions.